이화여자대학교 학생상담센터이화여자대학교 학생상담센터

Tips on overcoming posttraumatic stress disorder

Tips on overcoming Posttraumatic stress disorder

The treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder is to change perception of the traumatic event or go through re-experience to alleviate the upcoming symptoms. In addition, symptom relief through medication is also an option.

1. Cognitive therapy

Cognitive therapy is the most effective treatment. This method helps you to think through the trauma, how a person with post-traumatic stress disorder understands the trauma, and to change the thinking that causes the subject’s anxiety and other symptoms.

For example, even if after a car accident while driving, some people may experience slight anxiety symptoms for about two to three weeks and then start driving again. However, one can experience post-traumatic stress disorder of being in fear of driving again or riding a car, and reemergence symptoms involving car related accident for 2-3 months. In this case, the thoughts of the patient(eg. most drivers are high risk of accidents as they are careless and impulsive. I will not be able to avoid the accident. I will die in a car accident, etc.) must be identified and change it to more rational thoughts(eg. some drivers are careless and impulsive, but most drivers are driving carefully. I can avoid the risk of accidents because I drive defensively. I am more likely to get in accident when I tired or when its raninng/snowing, but I can use public transport during those days to be safe. I am very unlikely to die from a car accident, etc.).

Sometimes, we can be in self-regrets about things that were beyond our control. For example, if your family is robbed and your property is taken away because of a burglary, you may be regretful because you were not at home and may suffer from severe post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognitive therapy allows you to understand that it was not your fault and to cope with feelings of anger, fear and guilt you are experiencing.

2. Exposure therapy

Exposure therapy is a technique that changes the fear of thinking, feeling and situation related to trauma through repetitive exposure experiences. By repeatedly talking to the therapist about the accident, you can gradually control the negative feelings and thoughts about the accident. In other words, it can be very disturbing to remember or talk about memories of an accident, but as the treatment process continues, this anxiety is eased and the overwhelming experience is reduced.

Exposure therapy is largely divided into two methods: one starting with a very low level of anxiety and then dealing with increasingly anxious trauma experiences, and another starting with a very high level of anxiety situation such as a flood to gradually make the patient familiarized to pain. What is important in this process is not only to deal with uneasiness, but also to simultaneously practice relaxation exercises that alleviate the unpleasant feelings, so that the trauma experiences exposed in the treatment process become less fearful, less anxious, and eventually overcoming it.

3. Medication

Although there is no drug to treat all symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, medication is developed according to different symptoms the patient experiences, helping symptom relief and effective treatment. Especially, antidepressant drugs for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) are effective for controlling symptoms such as anxiety, fear and impulsive tendency in post-traumatic stress disorder.

4. Support from family and others

Post-traumatic stress disorder causes serious pain and symptoms for a few months to several years after the accident. In severe cases, it requires hospitalization. However, in the end, it is a problem that needs to be overcome through outpatient treatment and counseling, so the support of family members and friends is very important.

* How family and friends can help with post-traumatic stress disorder
  1. Rather than giving advice, keep by the patient's side, listen to the story and provide comfort.
  2. Provide a safe place and environment where the patient can chat and talk about the experience.
  3. Support to shift the focus from time to time away from the experience to enjoyable and happy stories of everyday life
  4. Help build diverse social support systems and more relationships through them. In other words, provide support for the patient through relationships with other friends, religious groups, counseling organizations, mental health professionals and social welfare institutions.
  5. Provide opportunity for the patient to study and train enhancing the understanding of trauma experience and treatment process. Check in with experts intermittently as the incorrect information could intervene during the study

It takes a certain period of time to recover from the trauma, so people around the patient should be persistent and wait for the recovery.


创伤后应激障碍 (PTSD: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) 是指个体经历、目睹或遭遇到一个或多个涉及自身或他人的实际死亡,或受到死亡的威胁,或严重的受伤,或身体遭受威胁后,产生恐惧以及仿佛重新经历同样事件以及产生相同的痛苦,同时为了从痛苦中解脱而耗尽精力的精神障碍。比较代表性的原因有暴露于外伤事件、战争或争斗,例如儿童期的性虐待或身体虐待,恐怖事件,性或者身体的攻击,交通事故等严重的事故, 又例如像火灾、台风、洪水等自然灾害。



  1. 创伤事件直接或者间接目击的情况
  2. 经历了严重的事故的情况
  3. 经历的创伤十分严重或者时间很长的情况
  4. 相信自己已经陷入危险的情况
  5. 知道家人已经陷入危险的情况
  6. 经历创伤时,有哭喊、发抖或者呕吐的情况,或者感到孤立感的情况
  7. 创伤时,感到无力或者觉得为了自己或所爱的人什么也做不了的情况
又或者,经历创伤的人在以下的条件下的话, 创伤后应激障碍的发病会相对更高。
  1. 幼年时有过心理上的创伤的经历
  2. 性格障碍或问题
  3. 家人或同僚的情感上的支持不当的情况
  4. 有家族精神类疾病病史的情况
  5. 女性
  6. 抵抗力
  7. 年幼
  8. 近期经历了过大的生活压力
  9. 过度地饮酒



  • 反复,插入性的对事件的痛苦记忆,包括图像、想法或者感知
  • 反复的,有关事件的痛苦的梦
  • 表现得或感觉到好像创伤性事件重现了的感觉
  • 当暴露在象征着创伤性事件的某些方面或者与创伤性事件某些方面相似的内容或者内容的提示时的生理反应,包括出汗、心跳加快等。
为了回避创伤伴有的刺激(记忆和情绪), 对一般事物的反应显得麻木的症状
  • 回避与创伤相关的想法,感觉或者对话的努力
  • 回避会促使回忆起此创伤的活动、地点或人物
  • 无法回忆此创伤的重要方面
  • 对重要活动的兴趣或者参与明显降低
  • 与他人疏远隔离的感觉
  • 情感受限(如无法拥有爱的感觉)。
  • 对未来无法感到正面的感觉或期待
  • 难以入睡或者经醒
  • 神经敏感或者容易发火
  • 难以集中注意力
  • 过度警觉
  • 经常受惊



创伤后应激障碍的治疗一般针对创伤事件的想法的修正或者对创伤事件的重新经历来缓解症状。 药物治疗对于缓解患者的症状、加强心理治疗的效果是肯定的。










虽然没有治疗所有创伤后应激障碍症状的药物,但是根据症状的不同,现有不同的药物可以帮助缓解症状达到治疗的效果。尤其是选择性5羟色胺再吸收抑制剂(SSRI, Selective Serotonin Reputake Inhibitor)类别的抗抑郁药物对创伤后应激障碍中的焦虑、恐惧、冲动倾向等症状的缓解有着治疗效果,而且相对的副作用也比较小,被广泛运用。



  1. 不忠告或者建议,在一边守护、倾听和安慰。
  2. 准备安全的,可以聊关于创伤经历的场所和环境。
  3. 时不时地也可以聊一些日常的,愉快的对话来帮助转变对话的焦点。
  4. 通过构筑多样化的支持体系来帮助形成多样化的关系。即,通过家人以外的朋友或宗教团体、团体咨询、精神健康专家、社会福利机构等的关系来体验多样化的帮助和支持。
  5. 为了提高自己对创伤经历和治疗过程的理解,自己学习,接受相关教育。但是,有时这样的理解也有错误的情况,所以,一定要定期地向专家确认。


  1. 不忠告或者建议,在一边守护、倾听和安慰。
  2. 准备安全的,可以聊关于创伤经历的场所和环境。
  3. 时不时地也可以聊一些日常的,愉快的对话来帮助转变对话的焦点。
  4. 通过构筑多样化的支持体系来帮助形成多样化的关系。即,通过家人以外的朋友或宗教团体、团体咨询、精神健康专家、社会福利机构等的关系来体验多样化的帮助和支持。
  5. 为了提高自己对创伤经历和治疗过程的理解,自己学习,接受相关教育。但是,有时这样的理解也有错误的情况,所以,一定要定期地向专家确认。